Dynamic DNS (DDNS) – Why use it?

DDNS or Dynamic DNS is a DNS service that can be useful to many. It is an automatic method for updating IP addresses that saves you from having a banned IP address that you can’t use or a paid static IP address, that might be very expensive.

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What is a Secondary DNS Zone?

Implementing the Secondary DNS zone is a great choice to keep a reliable copy of your data. Let’s make things a little bit more clear and explain more about it. 

DNS zone explained.

The DNS server is capable of holding a lot of zones to manage the DNS namespace more accurately. As a piece of that namespace is the DNS zone. It is a section that provides more organized and easy to control DNS components.

In order for your domain to work properly and accurately, you should have to point it to different servers, for example, mail servers, web servers, etc. To complete this task, you have to create multiple DNS records in the DNS zone.

All of your DNS records are going to be stored in the DNS zone. Furthermore, the existence of the Domain Name System is based on that one piece. The reason for this is that every part of it exists in a zone.

A DNS zone can be applicable for .com, example.com, info.example.com. However, if we examine a subdomain as a website on its own, that will need management on its own. This is because the subdomain could require a separate zone.

The DNS zone includes essential information about the DNS records, also contact information about the DNS zone administrator. It also contains zone parameters like Refresh and Retry rate described in the SOA (Start of Authority) record. 

What is a Secondary DNS zone?

It is a read-only copy of the DNS records you built in your Primary (Master) DNS zone. It is also named Slave or Backup DNS zone. It is crucial to understand that the DNS records, such as A or AAAA records, MX records, etc., cannot be attached straight to the Secondary DNS zone. The single way for your Backup zone to get the records you have renewed is through the Primary (Master) DNS zone of the DNS server. So if you require to maintain your DNS records in the Backup zone, you can do it just at your master server. 

One of the main ideas of a Secondary DNS zone is to assist as a backup. So if your Primary DNS zone is not working for some reason, that is not going to disturb you. This Backup zone will serve and yet respond to requests for the zone from its copy.

DNS zone transfer

It is a simple task to copy the data from the Primary DNS zone to the Secondary DNS zone. This process is also known as DNS zone transfer, which you can complete this task through two types of zone transfer.

  • Full zone transfer (AXFR) – This is a full zone transfer. The whole zone file will be copied in the Secondary DNS zone.
  • Partial zone transfer (IXFR) – In this situation, the Secondary servers are going first to examine all the latest changes. For example, if there are deleted and added DNS records that appeared after their last update. After that, they are going to get only the new ones. 
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SOA record – Why is it important?

There are many different DNS records. Some are very specific. Others are common and exist in any DNS. SOA record is one of these common, always present DNS records. Let’s see what it does and why it is so important to have it!

What is the SOA record?

SOA record is a key DNS record that indicates the start of authority. The authoritative name server (authoritative NS) is the top source of DNS information. It is the first DNS record that a zone file contains and sets the general properties of that zone. It also has more details about the zone transfers like the refresh rate, the retry rate, and who is administrating them (admin email).

Usually, DNS servers work together in a cluster. Those servers need to synchronize their zone file. For this purpose, they need to perform a zone transfer. The SOA works as a control record with a serial number and indicates the latest update. When the secondary servers (slaves servers) see that the number has changed, they will update and get the new data.

What is a zone transfer?

DNS has a hierarchy structure, where the date is organized by DNS zones. Those DNS zones have DNS zone files that contain the full information for the zone, including a SOA record.

The DNS usually has more than one DNS server. One is the primary DNS server, and the rest are secondary DNS servers.

The primary has the zone file, and all the changes happen inside it. The data from it must be propagated to the rest. This happens through a zone transfer. The zone transfer is a process of updating the zone file in the secondary DNS servers through IXFR zone transfer (partial transfer of changes only) or AXFR zone transfer (full transfer of all DNS records).

Why do you need a SOA record?

You need a SOA record to indicate the authoritative name server and to perform zone transfers. Each zone must have a SOA record, and there should be just one SOA record per zone. Without a SOA record or with multiple per zone, your zone won’t function.

What does a SOA record include?

A SOA record includes the following elements:

  • Name – Zone’s name
  • Type – SOA
  • Primary name server – The hostname of the primary name server for the zone.
  • Admin’s email – A contact information of the administrator of the domain’s zone file.
  • Serial number – The zone’s serial number. The secondary DNS servers will check this value and determine should they update the zone file or not.
  • Refresh rate – This is the time in seconds that the secondary name servers wait until they check again for changes.
  • Retry rate – If the zone transfer between the secondary DNS servers and the primary fails, this is the time the secondary servers will continue trying to update. If the times expires, the secondary servers’ data will be outdated, and they will stop answering queries.
  • Default TTL – A TTL value for all DNS records in the zone file. It indicates how long time the secondary servers should keep the data in the cache memory.

The parameters could have different names, depending on your DNS provider, but the functions will be the same. For example, Primary NS could be written MNAME, the retry rate could be just RETRY, and so on.

SOA record vs NS record

Some novice DNS administrators have trouble distinguishing the purpose of NS records and the SOA records.

The NS records’ purpose is to redirect DNS servers to the following DNS server that has the needed information for the next zone.

The DNS server cluster uses the SOA to update and sync data. Update the secondary DNS servers with data from the primary DNS server.

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CNAME record – everything you need to know

Now we will check one of the basic DNS records – CNAME. Why do you need CNAME records, how to use them, and are there any alternatives? You are about to find out! 

What is a CNAME DNS record?

CNAME, the “c” stands for “canonical”, and the rest is “name”. You can use it to show that one domain name is just another way of showing another domain (it is an alias for the canonical domain). The canonical means it is the “true” domain name. 

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The best web hosting solution for me – how to choose it?

When you have a business and plan to jump online, there are many critical decisions—the website’s design, logistics, strategy for promoting, and of course, choosing the best hosting solution.

There are a large number of hosting providers. You must know the objectives correctly and, therefore, your business’s real needs. The needs of a blog or portfolio site are very different from those of an e-shop. One will require so much more resources to manage more traffic, media files, etc.

Here you have some useful tips for choosing the best web hosting solution.

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Benefits of using Managed DNS

The DNS is magic, is essential, is the reason why the internet is possible! 

It answers users’ queries of all sorts and finds the real addresses of the sites we love. 

There is no doubt that we need it on a global scale, but do we need it for our websites? Yes! And the easiest way to get it is through a Managed DNS provider. 

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Why do you need DDoS protection?

You need DDoS protection because of the DDoS attacks, duh! With all seriousness, there are intentional cyber-attacks that hackers direct at websites or applications and use different weaknesses of the DNS. Those attacks are known as DDoS attacks, and you need special protection to keep your site afloat when they happen. Cause it is not a question of if, it is a question of when! 

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How to clear space on your Android phone?

Every day, smartphones are more sophisticated. But despite their success, not everybody is interested in having the most innovative and expensive phone every year. 

Those millions of users who happily own useful but less advanced devices suddenly can face the need to download a new app for banking, navigation, or getting video calls. They press the download button, and a message appears “insufficient space”! 

Well, if it’s your case, don’t suffer! You don’t have to buy a new phone in a hurry. Just try to free up space on your Android phone with the following suggestions.

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WordPress 5.5 “Eckstine” – latest updates

WordPress, the worldwide popular and open-source content management system (CMS), released its new version, WordPress 5.5 “Eckstine”. The name honors William C. Eckstine, an American pop and jazz singer. 

This time, “Eckstine” involved upgrades in three critical areas: security, search, and speed. So let’s see what is new on it!

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Windows 10’s October update 2020 – what’s new?

The new update of Windows 10 is here. The latest version is called October update 2020 or version 20H2. It is the second of the two big updates that Microsoft had planned for 2020. 

It is a free update for users of previous Windows 10.

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